They have their own extensive hadith literature. [30], Scholar Patricia Crone includes reports by others than Muhammad in her definition of hadith: "short reports (sometimes just a line or two) recording what an early figure, such as a companion of the prophet or Muhammad himself, said or did on a particular occasion, prefixed by a chain of transmitters". The one looking to this is in need of distinguishing the acceptable from the unacceptable. Ou le Hadith est-il un ensemble d'Écritures / livre séparé du Coran. Voilà la réponse donnée par Allâh ta’ala dans le Qour’an ! Il existe d’autres récits dans le Tafsir d’Ibn Kathir pour appuyer cet argumentaire, mais nous nous contenterons de ces deux là pour ne pas alourdir l’article inshaa Allâh. On ne doit pas penser à Son essence mais plutôt méditer dans la création (des cieux, de la terre..): Au nom d’Allah le Clément, le MiséricorDieux, Louanges à Allah. Mais outre ce fait, que répondre à un frère qui nous pose cette question ? Shi'a clerics also make use of extensive collections and commentaries by later authors. Allâh révéla alors le verset précédemment cité : A/ cette question « Où est Allâh » ne fait pas partie de la ‘Aqida. Qu'est-ce que le hadith Qudsi ? Verily, Allah is Severe in punishment" [al-Hashr 59:7], "Say: "Obey Allah and obey the Messenger, but if you turn away, he (Messenger Muhammad (SAW)) is only responsible for the duty placed on him (i.e. » - Encyclopédie des paroles prohétiques traduites Ibn al-Salah, a hadith specialist, described the relationship between hadith and other aspect of the religion by saying: "It is the science most pervasive in respect to the other sciences in their various branches, in particular to jurisprudence being the most important of them. to preach in a plain way)" [an-Noor 24:54], "We sent no Messenger, but to be obeyed by Allah's Leave" [an-Nisa’ 4:64]. En arabe, ce terme signifie « abnégation », « effort », « lutte » ou « résistance », souvent traduit à tort par « guerre sainte ». Definition. Ibn al-Salah's ʻUlum al-hadith is considered the standard classical reference on hadith studies. Other "traditions" of Islam related to hadith including: Joseph Schacht quotes a hadith by Muhammad that is used "to justify reference" in Islamic law to the companions of Muhammad as religious authorities — "My companions are like lodestars. Jamais nous ne confions cette tâche à celui qui la demande ou qui y aspire ! Lire à ce sujet notre article : La question « Où est Allâh » fait-elle partie de la ‘Aqida ? Among the verses cited as proof that the Quran called on Muslims "to refrain from that which [Muhammad] forbade, to obey him and to accept his rulings" in addition to obeying the Quran,[50] are: The hadith literature in use today is based on spoken reports in circulation after the death of Muhammad. Wolfgang Behn (Leiden, 1971), 20 ff. Le Prophète ﷺ a dit: “Le meilleur jour où le soleil s’est levé est le vendredi. Rappelons-nous que nous le croyant ne doit pas s’imaginer Allâh ni pousser la réflexion sur cette question. PLUS D'INFOS Je m’appelle Ayman, converti à l’Islam en 2004, j’avais alors 14 ans. Then the generation following them received it, thus conveying it to those after them and so on. [22], According to Muhammad Shafi, Hadith whose isnad has been scrutinized then have their text or matn examined for, However, Joseph Schacht states that the "whole technical criticism of traditions ... is mainly based on criticism of isnads", which he (and others) believe to be ineffective in eliminating fraudulent hadith.[98]. In fact one agreed upon hadith warned that, "There will be forgers, liars who will bring you hadiths which neither you nor your forefathers have heard, Beware of them. the individual narrators involved in its transmission. [19][20][21][22] Individual hadith are classified by Muslim clerics and jurists into categories such as sahih ("authentic"), hasan ("good") or da'if ("weak"). ou est Allah part 4: ... , Abou Ismâ'îl Al-Ansâri Al-Harawi était un imam, un jurisconsulte hanbalite, un grand savant du Hadith, un hâfidh, un exégète (moufasir), un exemple, un modèle, un soufi et un shaykh de l'Islam. Apprentissage et Adab des Sciences Islamiques, A propos du Hadith des 73 sectes et du Groupe Sauvé. * Le Fikr (et de méditer/contempler). ♥ «Seigneur ! Allah vous rétribue plutôt en fonction de la sincérité et véracité de votre cœur mais aussi selon les … Allah Est Arabe Ou Le Musulman Est Dieu. [59], According to as-Sayyid ash-Sharif al-Jurjani, the hadith qudsi differ from the Quran in that the former are "expressed in Muhammad's words", whereas the latter are the "direct words of God". Au nom d’Allah, le Tout Miséricordieux, le Très Miséricordieux. Que faites vous ? "ALLAH IS NOW AS HE EVER WAS" by GF Haddad. Hadith Qudsi 4: On the authority of Abu Hurayrah (may Allah be pleased with him), who said that the Messenger of Allah (PBUH) said: Allah said:Sons of Adam inveigh against [the vicissitudes of] Time, and I am Time, in My hand is the night and the day (1). [14] There are many modern Muslims (some of whom call themselves Quranists but many are also known as Submitters) who believe that most Hadiths are actually fabrications[15] created in the 8th and 9th century CE, and which are falsely attributed to Muhammad.[16][17][15]. Collections of hadith sometimes mix those of Muhammad with the reports of others. According to scholars such as Joseph Schacht, Ignaz Goldziher, and Daniel W. Brown, early schools of Islamic jurisprudence[70] used rulings of the Prophet's Companions, the rulings of the Caliphs, and practices that “had gained general acceptance among the jurists of that school”. "[69], In Islamic law, the use of hadith as now understood (hadith of Muhammad with documentation, isnads, etc.) En outre, j'ai entendu dire que le Coran est considéré comme supérieur au Hadith, comme dans, si vous lisez un verset dans le Hadith qui contredit le Coran, alors le Coran est considéré comme l'autorité. While the number of verses pertaining to law in the Quran is relatively few, hadith give direction on everything from details of religious obligations (such as Ghusl or Wudu, ablutions[7] for salat prayer), to the correct forms of salutations[8] and the importance of benevolence to slaves. Soyez, ô serviteurs d'Allah, tous frères; le musulman est frère du musulman, il ne l' opprime pas, ni ne l'abandonne, et il ne lui ment pas, ni ne le méprise. ». "[80] In addition the number of hadith grew enormously. "[90] Further, it has been narrated that Ja'far al-Sadiq, the son of al-Baqir, has said the following regarding hadith: "You must write it down; you will not memorize until you write it down. To do this, they used a number of techniques which Muslims now call the science of hadith.[81]. [57]. [33] Schacht credits Al-Shafi‘i — founder of the Shafi'i school of fiqh (or madh'hab) — with establishing the principle of the use of the hadith of Muhammad for Islamic law, and emphasizing the inferiority of hadith of anyone else, saying hadiths, "from other persons are of no account in the face of a tradition from the Prophet, whether they confirm or contradict it; Le djihad ou jihad, également écrit jihâd ou djihâd (جهاد en arabe)1, est un devoir religieux au sein de l'islam et du babisme. Identifying the narrators of the various texts, comparing their narrations of the same texts to identify both the soundest reporting of a text and the reporters who are most sound in their reporting occupied experts of hadith throughout the 2nd century. Some important elements, which are today taken to be a long-held part of Islamic practice and belief are not mentioned in the Quran, but are reported in hadiths. 241 d. vind-ik-leuks. Encyclopedia of Sahih Al-Bukhari by Arabic Virtual Translation Center (New York 2019, Barnes & Noble. The hadith are at the root of why there is no single fiqh system, but rather a collection of parallel systems within Islam. L'Imam Malik concernant "Ou est Allâh?" ⇒ La parole : « Apprenez vos généalogies de quoi vous permettre d’entretenir vos liens de parenté » Est-elle un hadith authentique ou faible ? – Où est Allâh, par le Mufti Ebrahim Desaï ». Où est Allâh. Coulson.[101]. Allâh est-Il tout près de nous pour entretenir avec Lui en tête a tête, ou loin de nous pour L’appeler? Vérifiez votre boîte de réception ou vos indésirables afin de confirmer votre abonnement. Accorde-nous une belle part dans ce monde et une belle part dans la vie future, et préserve-nous des tourments de l'Enfer !» ♥ Then all those whomever he had taught in the worldly life anything of goodness, or had opened from his heart a lock of ignorance or had removed his doubts will come out. The saying "Allah existed eternally without a place, and He is now as He ever was" is related - without chain - from 'Ali ibn Abi Talib -- Allah be well-pleased with him. Hadith Al Qudsi n°2: Insulter le temps, revient à insulter Allah. "[90]:10 Al-Baqir also emphasized the selfless devotion of Ahl al-Bayt to preserving the traditions of Muhammad through his conversation with Jabir ibn Abd Allah, an old companion of Muhammad. Another source (Joseph A. Islam) distinguishes between the two saying: Whereas the 'Hadith' is an oral communication that is allegedly derived from the Prophet or his teachings, the 'Sunna' (quite literally: mode of life, behaviour or example) signifies the prevailing customs of a particular community or people. 6 ) Dans le recueil de hadith de l'imam Mouslim, il est rapporté que le compagnon Mou'âwiya Ibn Al-Hakam dit au Prophète, paix et bénédiction d'Allah sur lui, au sujet d'une femme esclave : - Encyclopédie des paroles prophétiques traduites Puisque nous sommes croyants et que nous suivons le Qour’an et la Sunnah, alors acceptons la réponse qu’Allâh donne Lui-même dans son Livre. Le Prophète ﷺ a dit: “Le meilleur jour où le soleil s’est levé est le vendredi. Liste de hadiths authentiques rapportés du prophète sallallahou alayhi wa sallam sur la science. C’est ce jour-ci où Adam fut créé, où il est entré au Paradis et où il y a été expulsé. Aujourd’hui, Je les ombrage de Mon ombre, en ce Jour où il n’y a d’ombre que la Mienne. Si vous continuez à utiliser ce site, nous supposerons que vous en êtes satisfait. "[90], Regarding the importance of maintaining accuracy in recording hadith, it has been documented that Muhammad al-Baqir, the great grandson of Muhammad, has said that "Holding back in a doubtful issue is better than entering destruction. Critics have complained that, contrary to the description above where the matn is scrutinized, the process of authenticating hadith "was confined to a careful examination of the chain of transmitters who narrated the report and not report itself. Differences in hadith collections have contributed to differences in worship practices and shari'a law and have hardened the dividing line between the two traditions. [96][95] Examples of biographical dictionaries include: Abd al-Ghani al-Maqdisi's Al-Kamal fi Asma' al-Rijal, Ibn Hajar al-Asqalani's Tahdhīb al-Tahdhīb and al-Dhahabi's Tadhkirat al-huffaz. [citation needed], Faced with a huge corpus of miscellaneous traditions supported differing views on a variety of controversial matters—some of them flatly contradicting each other—Islamic scholars of the Abbasid sought to authenticate hadith. Scanner Internet Archive HTML5 Uploader 1.6.4. plus-circle Add Review. BismiLlâhi ar-Rahmani ar-Rahim [1], La question « Où est Allâh » fait-elle partie de la ‘Aqida (Croyance Musulmane) ? L’Islam est la religion avec laquelle Allah a envoyé Muhammad (Sala Allah ou ‘alaïhi oua Salam) : Allah a parachevé les messages antécédents avec l’avènement de l’Islam, et complété Sa religion pour Ses serviteurs et les a comblés de Son bienfait en agréant l'Islam, n'acceptant ainsi de … Abu Hurayra a rapporté que le Messager d’Allah est passé devant un tas de nourriture et a plongé sa main dedans. Hadith: « Garder les frontières dans le sentier d’Allah pendant un jour, est meilleur que le monde d'ici-bas et ce qui s’y trouve. Scholars had to decide which hadith were to be trusted as authentic and which had been invented for political or theological purposes. The hadith were used in forming the basis of Sharia (the religious law system forming part of the Islamic tradition), and fiqh (Islamic jurisprudence). comment. Avant même de répondre, sachez que cette question ne devrait pas être posée (si l’intention est d’en faire un point de ‘Aqida). While the Quran had been officially compiled and approved, hadiths had not. Le Prophète ﷺ a dit : « Le moment où le serviteur est le plus proche de Son Seigneur est lorsqu’il se trouve en prosternation. Ils se rappellent d’Allâh (Dhikr). [90]:15, Muslim scholars have a long history of questioning the hadith literature throughout Islamic history. ... أين الله Ou est Allah Oustaz Oumar SALL - Duration: 57:51. La meilleure des choses à faire, c’est de répondre avec la réponse donnée par le Qour’an lui-même ! [3][12][13]:471 Unlike the Quran, not all Muslims believe that hadith accounts (or at least not all hadith accounts) are divine revelation. « qudusu » ou « qudsu » signifie la pureté. The Follower would then say, "I heard a companion say, 'I heard the Prophet.'" Topics islam Language French. Ignaz Goldziher, ‘’The Zahiris: Their Doctrine and their History’’, trans and ed. The two major aspects of a hadith are the text of the report (the matn), which contains the actual narrative, and the chain of narrators (the isnad), which documents the route by which the report has been transmitted. While Malik ibn Anas had attributed just 1720 statements or deeds to the Muhammad, it was no longer unusual to find people who had collected a hundred times that number of hadith. [63] The isnad consists of a chronological list of the narrators, each mentioning the one from whom they heard the hadith, until mentioning the originator of the matn along with the matn itself. I) Al-Lalaka i (d.414H) : Sharh Usul I'tiqad Ahl Sunna (p396, Tahqiq Ahmad Hamdan) (660) Abdullah ibn Abbas (qu Allah l agrée) a dit : « En vérité Allah était au-dessus de Son Trône avant qu'Il n'ait tout créé, puis Il a créé la création et a décrété ce qui devait exister jusqu'au Jour du Jugement. Et il y a en ce jour une heure, où pas un seul serviteur musulman en prière ne demanderait une chose à Allah, sans qu’Il la lui donne”. However, the Akhbari school does take all hadith from the four books as authentic. Je témoigne: Il n'y a de Dieu que Allah et Muhammad est son messager. Nous ne croyons donc pas qu'Allah est confiné matériellement dans un espace ou qu'Il est porté par Son Trône, comme le serait une créature se trouvant dans une direction précise ou sur un … [65], Traditions of the life of Muhammad and the early history of Islam were passed down mostly orally for more than a hundred years after Muhammad's death in AD 632. Cliquez ici pour lire une série de hadiths en français sur sur la science. Le verset fut révélé a cette occasion. – L’Istiwa d’Allâh sur Son Trône – Les paroles authentiques des grands savants de l’Islam The reason for the unlawfulness of pictorial representation is that it imitates the creative act of Allah Most High, as is indicated by the hadith related by Imam Bukhari and Imam Muslim that A’isha (Allah be well pleased with her) said, “The Prophet (Allah bless him and give him peace) returned from a trip, and I had draped a cloth with picture on it over a small closet. The hadith had a profound and controversial influence on tafsir (commentaries of the Quran). Le Mahdi vivra sept ou huit ans" (Voir Moustadrak de Hakim n° 4/557-558. [22] Some schools of Hadith methodology apply as many as sixteen separate tests. Hadith: Au Jour de la Résurrection, Allah - Exalté soit-Il - demandera : Où sont ceux qui s’aimaient en Ma Majesté ? ), Edited by C. Fitzpatrick and A. Walker, Santa Barbara, ABC-CLIO, 2014, Vol I, pp. ». Hadith were not written down by Muhammad's followers immediately after his death but many generations later when they were collected, collated and compiled into a great corpus of Islamic literature. Multipliez donc les invocations à … Details of prescribed movements and words of the prayer (known as rakat's) and how many times they are to be performed, are found in hadith. [88] The Four Books are: Kitab al-Kafi by Muhammad ibn Ya'qub al-Kulayni al-Razi (329 AH), Man la yahduruhu al-Faqih by Muhammad ibn Babuya and Al-Tahdhib and Al-Istibsar both by Shaykh Muhammad Tusi. Si le père est décédé, c’est le frère de la mariée - ou son oncle si elle n’a pas de frère - qui jouera le rôle de témoin. Une créature ne peut pas cerner le Transcendant et Très Haut ni se Le représenter. Et il y a en ce jour une heure, où pas un seul serviteur musulman en prière ne demanderait une chose à Allah, sans qu’Il la lui donne”. Le Puissant et Majestueux a dit : «Il connaît ce qui est devant eux et ce qui est derrière eux, alors qu’ eux-mêmes ne Le cernent pas de leur science.» [5], « En vérité, il y a dans la création des Cieux et de la Terre et dans l’alternance de la nuit et du jour tant de signes pour des gens doués d’intelligence qui, debout, assis ou couchés, ne cessent de se remémorer (yadhkuruna) Allâh et de méditer (yatafakkaruna) sur la création des Cieux et de la Terre … ». The earliest commentary of the Quran known as Tafsir Ibn Abbas is sometimes attributed to the companion Ibn Abbas. Because some hadith include questionable and even contradictory statements, the authentication of hadith became a major field of study in Islam. Allah l'arrosera par la pluie, et la terre laissera pousser sa végétation, et des biens abondants seront distribués, et il y aura beaucoup de bétail, et la communauté connaîtra un important développement. 57:51. came gradually. [18] In its classic form a hadith has two parts—the chain of narrators who have transmitted the report (the isnad), and the main text of the report (the matn). Ou est allah exposition de la croyance authentique 1. http ... « Le Tout Miséricordieux me maria depuis le dessus de Son Trône » Ce hadith est rapporté par Al-Boukhârî. Scanner Internet Archive HTML5 Uploader 1.6.4. plus-circle Add Review. ... Shi’a ... refer to Ahlul-Bayt [the family of Muhammad] for deriving the Sunnah of Prophet" — implying that while hadith is limited to the "Traditions" of Muhammad, the Shia Sunna draws on the sayings, etc. Your not narrating a Hadith is better than you narrating a Hadith in which you have not studied thoroughly. of the Ahlul-Bayt i.e. Explication du hadith : Certes, Allah ne vous récompense pas et ne vous rétribue pas en fonction de votre corps et votre apparence, ce n’est pas grâce à cela que vous vous rapprochez de Lui. ... A 'Sunna' is a practice which has been passed on by a community from generation to generation en masse, whereas the hadith are reports collected by later compilers often centuries removed from the source. What I mean by best hadith is that, the narration starts with the word best or has advice in it about being the best. He (Al-Baqir) said, "Oh Jabir, had we spoken to you from our opinions and desires, we would be counted among those who are destroyed. Muslim historians say that Caliph Uthman ibn Affan (the third khalifa (caliph) of the Rashidun Caliphate, or third successor of Muhammad, who had formerly been Muhammad's secretary), is generally believed to urge Muslims to record the hadith just as Muhammad suggested to some of his followers to write down his words and actions. ", "Shaikh Shah Waliullahs Dehlawi's (1176H) Inclination in Fiqh and his Hanafiyyah – al-Allamah Shaikh Muhammad Ismaeel Salafi (1378H)", Divine Word and Prophetic Word in Early Islam: A Reconsideration of the Sources, with Special Reference to the Divine Saying or Hadith Qudsi, "The HADITH - How it was Collected and Compiled", "The science of hadith is based on reason and shar'i guidelines. [68], According to British historian of Arab world Alfred Guillaume, it is "certain" that "several small collections" of hadith were "assembled in Umayyad times. "[31], However, according to the Shia Islam Ahlul Bayt Digital Library Project, "... when there is no clear Qur’anic statement, nor is there a Hadith upon which Muslim schools have agreed. Aisha Y. Musa, The Qur’anists, Florida International University, accessed May 22, 2013. Il est établi de manière authentique que la question « Où est Allâh » ne fait pas partie de la Croyance (‘Aqida) de notre Crédo ou de notre Foi. (1/4) Au nom d'Allah, le Tout Miséricordieux, le Très Miséricordieux. You must refer the unclear ones to the clear ones.”. In Arabic, the noun ḥadīth (حديث IPA: [ħæˈdiːθ]) means "report", "account", or "narrative". Ainsi, le jihad peut aussi être défini par l'expression « faites un eff… [29], In Islamic terminology, according to Juan Campo, the term hadith refers to reports of statements or actions of Muhammad, or of his tacit approval or criticism of something said or done in his presence. The Hadith is the record of the Prophet Muhammad's precepts, actions, and life, which constitute his Sunna, or example. Allah est comme Il veut selon le mode qu'Il Lui convient, Sa science englobe tout et Il n'a pas d'égale ni de semblable. These later scholars tested their claims and agreed to them, so that today, they are considered the most reliable collections of hadith. Scriptural authority for hadith comes from the Quran which enjoins Muslims to emulate Muhammad and obey his judgments (in verses such as 24:54, 33:21). [citation needed], Hadith may be hadith qudsi (sacred hadith) — which some Muslims regard as the words of God (Arabic: Allah)[58] — or hadith sharif (noble hadith), which are Muhammad's own utterances. In addition, Bukhari and Muslim in particular, claimed that they were collecting only the soundest of sound hadiths. [2] L’Imam Malik (rahimahuLlâh) a été questionné au sujet du verset dans Sourate Taha, « Le Miséricordieux istawa (établi) sur le Trône », il a répondu : « L’istiwa n’est pas inconnu [parce que mentionnée dans le Livre d’Allâh], sa modalité est inconcevable pour l’esprit [parce que le comment (ou modalité – kayf) ne s’applique pas à Allâh]; et l’investigation à son sujet est une innovation ». This auxiliary literature has contributed to making their study the place of departure for any serious study of hadith. aḥādīth, أحاديث, ʾaḥādīṯ,[3][Note 1] Arabic pronunciation: [ʔaħadiːθ], literally means "talk" or "discourse") or Athar (Arabic: أثر‎, ʾAṯhar, literally means "tradition")[4] in Islam refers to what Muslims believe to be a record of the words, actions, and the silent approval of the Islamic prophet Muhammad. Numéro du Hadith dans le Sahîh de Muslim [Arabe uniquement]: 822 D'après `A'icha (qu'Allah soit satisfait d'elle), l'Envoyé d'Allah dit, lors de sa maladie à la suite de laquelle il succomba : "Qu'Allah maudisse les juifs et les chrétiens qui ont pris les tombes de leurs prophètes pour oratoires". Best Hadith are there for us to learn and carry out in our lives, ahadith are mainly used to derive Islamic rulings from but this has to be done by a qualified Mujtahid. Où est Allah ? being a report about the importance of an individual (or individuals) which is transmitted only through their supporters or family, and which is not supported by reports from other independent channels. Et Il est le Très-Haut, le Très-Grand. [19][22] The isnad was an effort to document that a hadith had actually come from Muhammad, and Muslim scholars from the eighth century until today have never ceased repeating the mantra "The isnad is part of the religion — if not for the isnad, whoever wanted could say whatever they wanted. [22], Joseph Schacht describes hadith as providing "the documentation" of the sunnah.[33]. Bonjour , dans certains moments de votre vie quand vous etes au plus bas que vous souffrez et que personne n'est la pour vous et que vous invoquez Allah mais vous ne voyez pas de signes de lui . 1 Ibn 'Ata' Allah al-Sakandari (d. 709) cites it as one of his Hikam (#34). Last month I attended my annual training session that's required for maintaining my state prison security clearance. Où est Allah ? It will shine among the people gathered on the plain of resurrection. "[19] The isnad means literally 'support', and it is so named due to the reliance of the hadith specialists upon it in determining the authenticity or weakness of a hadith. Le mot jihâd est employé à plusieurs reprises dans le Coran, souvent dans l'expression idiomatique « al-ǧihād bi amwalikum wa anfusikum » qui peut se traduire par « lutter avec vos biens et vos âmes ». « Allah » ou « Ellah » est un mot sémitique. Hadith qudsi sur l'injustice. allah ou akbar. Le Dhikr ne concerne qu’Allâh, tandis que le Fikr concerne la création. Pour approfondir le sujet, lire les articles : – L’Istawa d’Allâh sur Son Trône par Mufti Muhammad Kadwa Reports not meeting this standard are known as aahad, and are of several different types. Comme l’a dit l’Imam Malik (radhia Allâhu ‘anhu), investiguer à ce sujet est une bida’a (mauvaise innovation) [2]. [1] BismiLlâhi ar-Rahmani ar-Rahim, « Où est Allâh »? [97], Hadith on matters of importance needed to come through a number of independent chains,[95] this was known as the scale of transmission. Toutes les preuves détaillées existent et peuvent facilement être trouvées. Allah est comme Il veut selon le mode qu'Il Lui convient, Sa science englobe tout et Il n'a pas d'égale ni de semblable. Western academics also became active in the field later, starting in 1890, but much more often since 1950. The best-known hadith collections are The Four Books, which were compiled by three authors who are known as the 'Three Muhammads'. Oustaz Oumar Sall 19,787 views. "But no, by your Lord, they can have no Faith, until they make you (O Muhammad (SAW)) judge in all disputes between them, and find in themselves no resistance against your decisions, and accept (them) with full submission" [an-Nisa’ 4:65]. "[75][76] While traditionally the Quran is considered above the sunna in authority, Al-Shafi'i "forcefully argued" that the sunna stands "on equal footing with the Quran", (according to scholar Daniel Brown) for (as Al-Shafi'i put it) “the command of the Prophet is the command of God.”[77][78], In 851 the rationalist Mu`tazila school of thought fell from favor in the Abbasid Caliphate. Ils méditent (Fikr) sur la création des Cieux et de la Terre. Allah or Jesus? Pourquoi ceux qui veulent absolument placer Allâh dans une direction ou sur un Trône n’ont-ils pas suivi la méthodologie des Salafs as-Salih (tafwid) qui gardaient le silence et laissaient le sens à Allâh ? Non ! Que répondre à cette question ? [10][Note 2], Ḥadīth is the Arabic word for things like speech, report, account, narrative. [3] Tafsir Ismaïl ibn Kathir, pages 113 & 114, édition française, Dar al-Kutub al-Ilmiyah (Beyrouth – Liban), [4] Qour’an, s2/v186