Si vous êtes fan de lecture depuis des années, découvrez sans plus tarder toutes nos offres et nos bonnes affaires exceptionnelles pour l'acquisition d'un produit Hegel - Biographie. He lectured on "Logic and Metaphysics" and gave lectures with Schelling on an "Introduction to the Idea and Limits of True Philosophy" and facilitated a "philosophical disputorium". However, Hegel himself describes the system as a "circle of circles:", ...the science presents itself as a circle that winds around itself, where the mediation winds the end back to the beginning which is the simple ground; the circle is thus a circle of circles, for each single member ensouled by the method is reflected into itself so that, in returning to the beginning it is at the same time the beginning of a new member.[92]. Within this work, the category of life is conceived to be the absolute idea in the form of the subjective concept; an illustrative contrast may be seen in contrasting this with how the category of cognition is thought as being the absolute idea in the form of the judgement. His hopes of more companionship, however, were unfulfilled: Hölderlin was engrossed in an illicit love affair and shortly lost his reason. [98], Central to Hegel's conception of knowledge, mind, and reality was identity in difference; mind externalizes itself in various forms and objects and stands outside or opposed to them and, through recognizing itself in them, is "with itself" in these external manifestations so that they are at one and the same time mind and other-than-mind. Authors he read include the poet Friedrich Gottlieb Klopstock and writers associated with the Enlightenment, such as Christian Garve and Gotthold Ephraim Lessing. the subjective side of knowledge and will, with its life, movement, and activity" (thesis and antithesis), he did not use "synthesis", but instead spoke of the "Whole": "We then recognised the State as the moral Whole and the Reality of Freedom, and consequently as the objective unity of these two elements". Translator of Hegel's. Like Plato, with his dualism of soul versus bodily appetites, Kant pursued the mind's ability to question its felt inclinations or appetites and to come up with a standard of "duty" (or, in Plato's case, "good") which transcends bodily restrictiveness. The eternity of spirit is here brought into consciousness, and is found in this reasoned knowledge, in this very separation, which has reached the infinitude of being-for-self, and which is no longer entangled in what is natural, contingent, and external. [131] Since the fall of the Soviet Union, a new wave of Hegel scholarship has arisen in the West without the preconceptions of the prior schools of thought. The Left Hegelians, also known as the Young Hegelians, interpreted Hegel in a revolutionary sense, leading to an advocation of atheism in religion and liberal democracy in politics. The idea of the absolute excludes multiplicity so the subjective and objective must achieve synthesis to become whole. Terry Pinkard situates Hegel firmly in the historical context of his times. "[55][56] Heidegger in various places further stated Hegel's thinking to be "the most powerful thinking of modern times. In October, 1788 Hegel began studies at a theological seminary in Tübingen, the Tüberger Stift, where he became friends with the poet Hölderlin and philosopher Friedrich Schellin… [33] Of special importance is his concept of spirit (Geist, sometimes also translated as "mind") as the historical manifestation of the logical concept – and the "sublation" (Aufhebung, integration without elimination or reduction) – of seemingly contradictory or opposing factors: examples include the apparent opposition between necessity and freedom and between immanence and transcendence. On leaving college, Hegel did not enter the ministry; instead, wishing to have leisure for the study of philosophy and Greek literature, he became a private tutor. This mind comprehends all of these phases and sub-parts as steps in its own process of comprehension. In accounts of Hegelianism formed prior to the Hegel renaissance, Hegel's dialectic was often characterized as a three-step process, "thesis, antithesis, synthesis"; a "thesis" (e.g. [132] Believing that the traditional description of Hegel's philosophy in terms of thesis–antithesis–synthesis was mistaken, a few scholars like Raya Dunayevskaya have attempted to discard the triadic approach. Maurice Merleau-Ponty (trans. Museum Tusculanum Press. In this manner, a solution that is reached in principle in the account of "true infinity" in the Science of Logic's chapter on "Quality" is repeated in new guises at later stages, all the way to "Spirit" and "ethical life" in the third volume of the Encyclopedia. Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel naît à Stuttgart le 27 août 1770 dans une famille protestante. The "thesis–antithesis–synthesis" approach erroneously gives the sense that things or ideas are contradicted or opposed by things that come from outside them. Kant had maintained that, whereas orthodoxy requires a faith in historical facts and in doctrines that reason alone cannot justify and imposes on the faithful a moral system of arbitrary commands alleged to be revealed, Jesus, on the contrary, had originally taught a rational morality, which was reconcilable with the teaching of Kant’s ethical works, and a religion that, unlike Judaism, was adapted to the reason of all people. Please select which sections you would like to print: Corrections? According to Hegel, "Heraclitus is the one who first declared the nature of the infinite and first grasped nature as in itself infinite, that is, its essence as process. His father, Georg Ludwig, was Rentkammersekretär (secretary to the revenue office) at the court of Karl Eugen, Duke of Württemberg. [118], Hegel seemed to have an ambivalent relationship with magic, myth and Paganism. [148], Voegelin argued that Hegel should be understood not as a philosopher, but as a "sorcerer", i.e. As is always the case, difficulties are magnified for those reading him in translation. In this way, Hegel defended the truth in Kantian dualism against reductive or eliminative programs like materialism and empiricism. [109] Kaufmann wrote: Aside to his beloved Greeks, Hegel saw before him the example of Spinoza and, in his own time, the poetry of Goethe, Schiller, and Hölderlin, who also liked to speak of gods and the divine. Terry Pinkard situates Hegel firmly in the historical context of his times. This period saw the publication of his second major work, the Science of Logic (Wissenschaft der Logik; 3 vols., 1812, 1813 and 1816), and the birth of his two legitimate sons, Karl Friedrich Wilhelm (1813–1901) and Immanuel Thomas Christian (1814–1891). In 1831, Frederick William III decorated him with the Order of the Red Eagle, 3rd Class for his service to the Prussian state. Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel (IPA: [ˈgeɔʁk ˈvɪlhɛlm ˈfʁiːdʁɪç ˈheːgəl]) (lahir 27 Agustus 1770 – meninggal 14 November 1831 pada umur 61 tahun) adalah seorang filsuf idealis Jerman yang lahir di Stuttgart, Württemberg, kini di Jerman barat daya. The limitations represent fetters, which it must constantly cast off as it becomes freer and more self-determining.[106]. [74]:773, Having received offers of a post from the Universities of Erlangen, Berlin and Heidelberg, Hegel chose Heidelberg, where he moved in 1816. According to their argument, although Hegel referred to "the two elemental considerations: first, the idea of freedom as the absolute and final aim; secondly, the means for realising it, i.e. Hegel und die Entstehung der Gesellschaftstheorie, New York 1941 (englischsprachig), Darmstadt und Neuwied 1962 u. ö. Scholars such as Clark Butler hold that a good portion of the Logic is formalizable, proceeding deductively via indirect proof. [149] This concept of Hegel as a hermetic thinker was elaborated by Glenn Alexander Magee,[150] who argued that interpreting Hegel's body of work as an expression of mysticism and hermetic ideas leads to a more accurate understanding of Hegel. [30][31], Hegel's principal achievement was his development of a distinctive articulation of idealism, sometimes termed absolute idealism,[32] in which the dualisms of, for instance, mind and nature and subject and object are overcome. Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel (Stuttgart, actual Alemania, 1770 - Berlín, 1831) Filósofo alemán. E. Metzke, Hegels Vorreden. The mystical writings of Jakob Böhme had a strong effect on Hegel. Le système est présenté comme une « phénoménologie de l'esprit » puis comme une « encyclopédie de… His philosophy of spirit conceptually integrates psychology, the state, history, art, religion and philosophy. Philosophe idéaliste allemand (1770-1831) auteur de la Phénoménologie de l'esprit, qui fut l'un des penseurs les plus influents du XIXe siècle. American author and professor Terry Pinkard’s comprehensive biographical survey of the life and ideas of German philosopher Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel, Hegel: A Biography (2000), is "the only substantial biography of Hegel" that's been published since 1844, according to The New York Review of Books' Anthony Quinton. the Reign of Terror that followed) and would result in a "synthesis" (e.g. Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel, né le 27 août 1770 à Stuttgart et mort le 14 novembre 1831 à Berlin, est un philosophe allemand. (ed. "[91] Hegel went so far as to include the concept of life as a category in his Science of Logic, likely inspired by Aristotle's emphasis on teleology, as well as Kant's treatment of Naturzweck (natural purposiveness) in the Critique of Judgment. With the possible exception of the study of inference, what was called "logic" in nineteenth-century Europe (and so Hegel's Logic) bears little resemblance to what logicians study today. Some historians have spoken of Hegel's influence as represented by two opposing camps. However, Hegel used this classification only once and he attributed the terminology to Kant. C’est là ce qu’on pourrait appeler sa période Schellingienne : fidèle disciple, il se borne à défe… Born in 1770 in Stuttgart, Hegel spent the years 1788–1793 asa student in nearby Tübingen, studying first philosophy, and thentheology, and forming friendships with fellow students, the futuregreat romantic poet Friedrich Hölderlin (1770–1843) andFriedrich von Schelling (1775–1854), who, like Hegel, wouldbecome one of the major figures of the German philosophical scene inthe first half of the nineteenth century. Nicht mit der Welt, sondern mit der Freiheit bringt Klaus Vieweg Hegel schon im Titel seiner Biographie zusammen. This research program took on new meaning with the 1781 publication of Kant's Critique of Pure Reason. [140] Kierkegaard criticized Hegel's "absolute knowledge" unity. [94] In his Phenomenology of Spirit and his Science of Logic, Hegel's concern with Kantian topics such as freedom and morality and with their ontological implications is pervasive. Indeed, "logic" in the field of nineteenth-century continental philosophy takes on a range of meanings from "metaphysics" to "theory of science," from "critical epistemology" to "first philosophy." Born on 27 August 1770 in Stuttgart, Württemberg, Germany, Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel was a philosopher, author, and a key component among classical German philosophers. A. Pelczynski and Shlomo Avineri. When he entered the Latin School two years later, he already knew the first declension, having been taught it by his mother. The infinitude of spirit is its inwardness, in an abstract sense its pure inwardness, and this is its thought, and this abstract thought is a real present infinitude, while its concrete inwardness consists in the fact that this thought is Spirit. Doctrines of judgment investigate relations of subject and predicate; and doctrines of inference lay out the forms of syllogisms originally found in Aristotelian term logic. Herbert L. and Patricia Allen Dreyfus). "[78] He was buried on 16 November. The first of these was a life of Jesus in which Hegel attempted to reinterpret the Gospel on Kantian lines. Son ouvre est l'une des plus représentatives de l'Idéalisme allemand et a eu une influence décisive sur l'ensemble de la philosophie du XXe siècle. Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel (1770-1831) est un philosophe allemand. It was perfectly legitimate in Hegel's eyes for a conqueror, such as Napoleon, to come and destroy that which was not fully realized. In his posthumously published Lectures on the Philosophy of Religion, Part 3, Hegel is particularly interested in demonstrations of God's existence and the ontological proof. as a mystic and hermetic thinker. [97], "Mind" and "Spirit" are the common English translations of Hegel's use of the German "Geist", which combines the meaning of spirit—as in god, ghost, or mind—with an intentional force. Hegel's categories are, in part, carried over from his Lectures on the History of Philosophy. Gintinkangan niya han Hegelianismo nga bahin han Aleman nga Ideyalismo. )[35][a], Hegel has influenced many thinkers and writers whose own positions vary widely. [146] Popper also makes the claim in the second volume of The Open Society and Its Enemies (1945) that Hegel's system formed a thinly veiled justification for the absolute rule of Frederick William III and that Hegel's idea of the ultimate goal of history was to reach a state approximating that of 1830s Prussia. His father, Georg Ludwig, was Rentkammersekretär (secretary to the revenue office) at the court of Karl Eugen, Duke of Württemberg. At the time of Hegel’s death, he was the most prominent philosopherin Germany. Hegel was deeply disturbed by the riots for reform in Berlin in that year. Kant spoke of Entstehen (coming-to-be) and Vergehen (ceasing-to-be), the same two terms that Hegel used to refer to the two compositional elements of Werden (becoming). His influence has been as fertile in the reactions that he precipitated—in Søren Kierkegaard, the Danish existentialist; in the Marxists, who turned to social action; in the logical positivists; and in G.E. Hegel was fascinated by the works of Kant, Rousseau and Johann Wolfgang Goethe and by the French Revolution. Hegel's posthumous works have had remarkable influence on subsequent works on religion, aesthetics, and history because of the comprehensive accounts of the subject matters considered within the lectures, with Heidegger for example in Poetry, Language, Thought characterizing Hegel's Lectures on Aesthetics as the "most comprehensive reflection on the nature of art that the West possesses—comprehensive because it stems from metaphysics."[124]. For discussion of the various schools of Hegelian thought, see Hegelianism. Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel, (born August 27, 1770, Stuttgart, Württemberg [Germany]—died November 14, 1831, Berlin), German philosopher who developed a dialectical scheme that emphasized the progress of history and of ideas from thesis to antithesis and thence to a synthesis. Here he studied philosophy and classics for two years and graduated in 1790. To this list, one could add Proclus, Meister Eckhart, Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz, Plotinus, Jakob Böhme, and Jean-Jacques Rousseau. Spirit, as possessed of freedom, does not belong to the sphere of things limited; it, as being what thinks and knows in an absolute way, has the universal for its object; this is eternity, which is not simply duration, as duration can be predicated of mountains, but knowledge. His studies at the Gymnasium concluded with his Abiturrede ("graduation speech") "Der verkümmerte Zustand der Künste und Wissenschaften unter den Türken" ("The abortive state of art and scholarship in Turkey").[59]:16[61]. p. 1. Just as humans continually correct their concept of reality through a dialectical process, God becomes more fully manifested through the dialectical process of becoming. [111] This led Hegelian philosopher, jurist and politician Carl Friedrich Göschel (1784–1861) to write a treatise demonstrating the consistency of Hegel's philosophy with Christian doctrine on the soul's immortality (Von den Beweisen für die Unsterblichkeit der menschlichen Seele im Lichte der spekulativen Philosophie: eine Ostergabe – From the evidence of the immortality of the human soul in the light of speculative philosophy: an Easter gift) (Berlin: Verlag von Duncker und Humblot, 1835). Hegel was born on 27 August 1770 in Stuttgart, capital of the Duchy of Württemberg in southwestern Germany. Hegel's main philosophical project was to take these contradictions and tensions and interpret them as part of a comprehensive, evolving, rational unity that in different contexts he called "the absolute Idea" (Science of Logic, sections 1781–1783) or "absolute knowledge" (Phenomenology of Spirit, "(DD) Absolute Knowledge"). ; 1984; 'The Significance of Hegel's separation of the state and civil society' pp1-13 in Pelczynski, A.Z. Here, Hegel published his Philosophy of Right (1821). Politically, they were orthodox. This first major biography of Hegel in English offers not only a complete, up-to-date account of the life, but also an overview of the key philosophical concepts in Hegel's work in an accessible style. [72], Pinkard (2000) notes that Hegel's comment to Niethammer "is all the more striking since he had already composed the crucial section of the Phenomenology in which he remarked that the Revolution had now officially passed to another land (Germany) that would complete 'in thought' what the Revolution had only partially accomplished in practice". This article treats Hegel’s life, thought, and influence. The following February marked the birth of Hegel's illegitimate son, Georg Ludwig Friedrich Fischer (1807–1831), as the result of an affair with Hegel's landlady Christiana Burkhardt née Fischer (who had been abandoned by her husband). Published in 2000, this is the first major biography of Hegel in English. Press. Hegel cites a number of fragments of Heraclitus in his Lectures on the History of Philosophy. Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel, histoire et biographie de Hegel. [144] Karl Popper quoted Schopenhauer as stating, "Should you ever intend to dull the wits of a young man and to incapacitate his brains for any kind of thought whatever, then you cannot do better than give Hegel to read...A guardian fearing that his ward might become too intelligent for his schemes might prevent this misfortune by innocently suggesting the reading of Hegel. Benedetto Croce, Ce qui est vivant et ce qui est mort de la philosophie de Hegel, Giard & Brière, 1910; D. Rosca, L'influence de Taine sur Hegel, théoricien de la connaissance et de l'art, Paris, J. Gamber, 1928. In 1802, Schelling and Hegel founded the journal Kritische Journal der Philosophie (Critical Journal of Philosophy) to which they contributed until the collaboration ended when Schelling left for Würzburg in 1803. Hegel secured a position at the University of Jena as a Privatdozent (unsalaried lecturer) after submitting the inaugural dissertation De Orbitis Planetarum, in which he briefly criticized arguments that assert—based on Bode's Law or other arbitrary choice of mathematical series—there must exist a planet between Mars and Jupiter. Though his fellow students called him “the old man,” he liked cheerful company and a “sacrifice to Bacchus” and enjoyed the company of women as well. From 1788 to 1793 he studied classics, philosophy, and theology at the University of Tübingen, earning an M.A. Looking for an examination copy? This liberal distinction between political society and civil society was used by Alexis de Tocqueville. Biographie : Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel est un philosophe allemand. In fact, Hegel himself argued, in his Science of Logic, that German was particularly conducive to philosophical thought. Principal of the University of St. Andrews, Scotland, 1953–66. Schopenhauer, Arthur. being–nothingness–becoming, immediate–mediate–concrete and abstract–negative–concrete) is about this movement from inner contradiction to higher-level integration or unification.

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